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Characteristics of frequency bands in RFID systems and their main application areas:

For an RFID system, its frequency band concept refers to the tag signal frequency range that the reader sends, receives, and reads through the antenna. From the application concept, the operating frequency of the radio frequency tag is the operating frequency of the radio frequency identification system and directly determines the characteristics of the system application. In an RFID system, the system works just like we usually listen to FM radio, and the RF tag and reader must be modulated to the same frequency to work.

The operating frequency of the RF tag not only determines the working principle (inductive coupling or electromagnetic coupling) of the RFID system, and the distance to be identified, but also determines the difficulty and cost of the RF tag and the reader. The frequency bands or frequencies occupied by RFID applications are generally recognized internationally, that is, located in the ISM band. Typical operating frequencies are: 125 kHz, 133 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 27.12 MHz, 433 MHz, 902 MHz to 928 MHz, 2.45 GHz, and 5.8 GHz.

According to different operating frequencies, RFID tags can be classified into different types such as low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), ultra high frequency (UHF), and microwave. The working principle of RFID in different frequency bands is different. The RFID electronic tags in the LF and HF bands generally adopt the principle of electromagnetic coupling, while UHF and microwave bands in the RFID generally use electromagnetic emission principles. Currently widely used in the world frequency distribution in four kinds of bands, low frequency (125KHz), high frequency (13.54MHz), ultra-high frequency (850MHz ~ 910MFz) and microwave (2.45GHz). Each type of frequency has its own characteristics and is used in different areas. Therefore, to apply it properly, you must first select the appropriate frequency.

The low frequency band radio frequency tag, abbreviated as the low frequency tag, its operating frequency range is 30kHz- 300kHz. Typical operating frequencies are 125KHz and 133KHz. The low-frequency tag is generally a passive tag, and its working energy is obtained by inductive coupling from the radiation near-field of the reader-coupled coil. When transmitting data between the low-frequency tag and the reader, the low-frequency tag must be located in the near-field area of ​​the reader antenna radiation. The reading distance of low-frequency tags is generally less than 1 meter. Typical applications for low-frequency tags include: animal identification, container identification, tool identification, and electronic lock-up security (car key with built-in transponder).

The operating frequency of radio frequency tags in the high-mid band is generally 3 MHz to 30 MHz. The typical operating frequency is 13.56 MHz. This band of radio frequency tags, because of its working principle and low-frequency tags are exactly the same, that is, the use of inductive coupling, so it should be classified as low-frequency tags. On the other hand, according to the general division of radio frequency, its working frequency band is also called high frequency, so it is often referred to as HF tag. Given that this band of radio frequency tags may be the largest amount of radio frequency tags in practical use, we only need to understand high and low as a relative concept, that is, it will not cause confusion in understanding. For ease of description, we call it a mid-frequency radio frequency tag. The IF tag also generally uses a passive setup. Its working energy is the same as that of a low-frequency tag, and is also obtained from the near-field radiation of the reader-coupled coil through inductive (magnetic) coupling. When tags and readers exchange data, the tag must be located in the near-field area of ​​the antenna of the reader. The reading distance of the IF tag is also generally less than 1 meter. IF tag can be easily made into a card shape, widely used in electronic ticket, electronic ID card, electronic lock anti-theft (electronic remote control lock controller), residential property management, building access control systems.

UHF and microwave frequency band radio frequency tags are abbreviated as microwave radio frequency tags. Typical operating frequencies are 433.92 MHz, 862 (902) MHz to 928 MHz, 2.45 GHz, and 5.8 GHz. Microwave RF tags can be classified into active tags and passive tags. When working, the RF tag is located in the far field of the radiation field of the reader antenna, and the coupling mode between the tag and the reader is electromagnetic coupling. The reader antenna radiation field provides RF energy for passive tags and wakes the active tags. The corresponding radio frequency identification system reading distance is generally greater than 1m, typically 4m ~ 6m, up to 10m or more. The reader antennas are generally directional antennas, and only the RFID tags within the directional beam of the reader antenna can be read/written. Due to the increase of the reading distance, there is a possibility that multiple radio frequency tags appear in the reading area at the same time in the application, thereby raising the need for simultaneous reading of multiple tags. At present, advanced radio frequency identification systems take multiple tag reading as an important feature of the system. UHF tags are mainly used for automatic identification of railway vehicles, container identification, and can also be used in road vehicle identification and automatic toll collection systems.

At the current level of technology, products with relatively successful passive microwave RF tags are relatively concentrated in the 902MHz to 928MHz operating band. 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz radio frequency identification systems are mostly available with semi-passive microwave radio frequency tag products. Semi-passive tags are generally powered by button batteries and have a long reading distance. The typical characteristics of microwave RF tags mainly focus on whether passive, wireless read and write distances, whether to support multi-tag reading and writing, whether it is suitable for high-speed identification applications, the transmit power tolerance of readers, the price of RF tags and readers, etc. . For wirelessly readable RF tags, the write distance is usually smaller than the read distance because the write requires more energy. The data storage capacity of microwave RF tags is generally limited to 2Kbits, and the large storage capacity does not seem to be of much significance. From the perspective of technology and application, microwave RF tags are not suitable as a carrier for large amounts of data. Its main function lies in Identify items and complete the contactless identification process. Typical data capacity indicators include: 1Kbits, 128Bits, 64Bits, and so on. The product electronic code EPC defined by the Auto-ID Center has a capacity of 90 Bits. Typical applications of microwave RF tags include mobile vehicle identification, electronic lock-up security (electronic remote control lock controller), medical research and other industries.

Tags of different frequencies have different characteristics. For example, low-frequency tags are cheaper than UHF tags, save energy, penetrate scrap metal objects, and are not subject to radio frequency control restrictions. They are most suitable for objects with high water content. , For example, fruits, etc.; UHF has a wide range of effects, and the speed of data transmission is fast, but it is relatively energy-consuming and has weak penetrating power. The operation area cannot have too much interference. It is suitable for monitoring items in the logistics fields such as ports and warehouses; The frequency tag belongs to short-distance recognition, read and write speed is also centered, and the price of the product is also relatively cheap, such as being applied to the electronic ticket card.

At present, different countries use different frequencies for the same band. The UHF used in Europe is 868 MHz, while in the United States it is 915 MHz. Japan currently does not allow UHF to be used in radio frequency technology.

At present, in practical applications, the frequency bands 13.56 MHz, 860 MHz to 960 MHz, and 2.45 GHz are more commonly used. The close-range RFID system mainly uses LF and HF frequency bands such as 125KHz and 13.56MHz, and the technology is the most mature. The long-distance RFID system mainly uses UHF bands such as 433MHz and 860MHz-960MHz, and the microwave frequency bands such as 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz are still in the test. There are no large-scale applications.

China's LF and HF band RFID tag chip design technology is relatively mature, HF frequency band design technology is close to the international advanced level, has independently developed in accordance with ISO14443 Type A, Type B and ISO15693 standard RFID chip, and successfully applied Traffic card and second-generation ID cards and other items.

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